Cannabidiol, which was discovered in 1940, is a phytocannabinoid that belongs to the 113 cannabinoids found in the cannabis plant. It has been shown to have beneficial effects for various conditions.
Cannabidiol can be taken internally through various means, such as by inhaling or vaporizing cannabis smoke, by mouth, or by spray into the cheek. It can also be supplied as a standalone active ingredient or as a combination of the active ingredients. Although it has the same psychoactive effects as THC, CBD has no known mechanism of action for its effects.
In the United States, the drug Epidiolex was approved in 2018. The drug was used to treat two forms of epilepsy disorders. Despite the approval of the drug, its use and sale remain illegal under the terms of the 2018 Farm Bill.
In the US, the only brand of cannabidiol that’s approved for the treatment of epilepsy is Epidiolex. Although it is well-tolerated, it can cause minor adverse effects, such as nausea and appetite loss.
Epidiolex is indicated for the adjunctive treatment of severe seizure disorders caused by Lennox Gastaut syndrome or Dravet syndrome. In the European Union, it is also used in conjunction with clobazam for people two years of age or older.
Studies on other uses of cannabidiol have not been confirmed. In October 2019, the US FDA issued an advisory warning about the potential side effects of cannabidiol during pregnancy or breastfeeding.
There are also studies that suggest that cannabidiol could be used for other neurological disorders. Although these findings have not been confirmed in clinical practice, the effects of CBD on pregnant women and breastfeeding infants are not yet clear.
Many claims for the use of cannabidiol are not backed by sound evidence. For instance, some of these claims refer to the treatment of cancer.
Although it doesn’t appear to have the intoxicating effects of other drugs, cannabidiol is still under preliminary research for its anti-psychotic and anti-anxiety effects. Due to its nature, it is widely used as a treatment for epilepsy.
Medical marijuana has a significant variation in the ratio of cannabidiol to THC. Although it is known to have non-psychotropic cannabinoids, psychoactive marijuana is derived from the flower of the genus Cannabis. Non-psychoactive hemp, regardless of its content, is not considered a controlled substance by the US government. This plant can be cultivated and harvested without federal regulations.
Studies show that cannabidiol can reduce the effects of THC in certain individuals, but it can also cause side effects such as diarrhea, decreased appetite, and fatigue.
Laboratory studies indicate that cannabidiol can reduce the THC clearance threshold and increase plasma concentrations that can raise the THC availability to receptors. It can also affect the activity of voltage-dependent channels and cause brain cells to produce a spike in sodium and potassium levels.
As of December 2020, no hemp-derived cannabinoid-rich products are registered in any of the major regions.
There are numerous products available over the counter (OTC) for pets and owners. However, these products are often not as safe as they should be and can pose a risk to the health of pets and owners.
To understand the health benefits of CBD for animals, companies have been funding research.
Studies suggest that CBD’s ability to reduce the release of neurotransmitters could help relieve chronic pain. For instance, a study conducted on dogs revealed that those with osteoarthritis exhibited an increase in activity after consuming food containing CBD.
Studies have shown that cannabidiol (CBD) can be beneficial for controlling seizures in dogs. However, according to published studies, the use of CBD-based products has not been shown to significantly decrease the number of seizures in dogs.
The bioavailability of cannabidiolic acid varies widely across species and it is linked with the time of administration and presentation. A 24-hour kinetic examination revealed that the absorption of cannabidiolic acid occurs twice as fast as that of CBD.
It was revealed that the major metabolites of CBD are not prevalent in humans and that 6-OH-CBD is the primary metabolite of dogs receiving CBD-enriched herbal extract.
Studies have shown increases in the levels of the Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) in dogs treated with varying doses of CBD. These findings have not been associated with any clinical signs.
Although it has low affinity for the CB1 and CB2 receptors, Cannabidiol can act as an antagonist of these two receptors. It can also be an antagonist of a G protein-coupled receptor known as GPR55. It has been shown to act as a partial agonist of a serotonin 5-HT1A receptor.
The bioavailability of cannabidiol is 6% in humans, and its half-life is 18 to 32 hours. It is metabolized in the liver and the intestines by the enzymes CYP2B6, CYP2C19, and CYP3A4. These enzymes are responsible for the decarbonization of cannabidiol.
Sativex, which is sold under the brand name Nabiximols, is an oromucosal tablet that can be used to treat central neuropathic pain and cancer-related pain. It was approved by Health Canada for these conditions in 2005. In New Zealand, it is used for the treatment of moderate to severe spastisicity.
Epidiolex is a cannabidiol solution that was approved in the US in 2018. It was used for the treatment of two rare forms of epilepsy.
Cannabidiol is a colorless solid. It can be obtained by reacting with air or with strongly basic media. It is then converted to THC by cyclizing under acidic conditions.
CBD-carboxylic acid is produced by the same metabolic pathway as THC. It is then converted into a solvent by the CBDA synthase.